First, the water has to be mentioned as a formative force. Water washed out the large trough. On the bottom of the trough laired marl and clay. They made the removal through the water less resistance than the hard limestone in the edge of the Börde. The many streams and other watercourses washed away the soft Keuper marl, the hard Muschelkalk frame they keep standing. This all happened before the Loess covered the landscape.

Also in the design of the knolls, the activity of the water was much involved. They consist of basalt and basalt tuff stone, which are harder than the Keuper marl around. The degradation they made greater resistance and remained as cone-shaped mountains and hilltops in the area of arable landscape, while the softer material has been removed.  In addtition to the mountain cones Desenberg and Hüssenberg are the Weißholz (Whitewood) and Tannenkopf at Lütgeneder and the Börenberg at Daseburg further examples of knolls that we find in the Börde.

The wind is another element that has greatly contributed to the shaping of the Börde. In the ice age it streamed the fertile loess into the Börde basin. During this time mighty icebergs, coming from the north into our region, pushed stone boulders and masses of earth in front of them. In a then following interglacial period the ice at the edges began to melt. The water flowed away, boulders, earth and mud remained lying.
These deposits were blown off by fierce northern winds and the dust-fine and nutrient-rich particles were streamed to the south. On the side facing away from the winch side of the mountains and mountain ranges they sank to the bottom. When the winds blew over our trough-like recessed landscape, the fine grains of earth came into the slipstream, the so-called over wind of the low-lying basin mold, sank to the bottom and deposited on the Keuper layers. These fine particles we call loess. Over many years a thick, nutrient-rich loess layer was created. The loess is crumbly and fine-grained and can be crushed between your fingers. Everyone knows it: loess soil is very fertile.

In the Warburg Börde, the thickness of the layers of loess is very different. In some places it is entirely absent, in other it can reach a depth of six meters or more.
Our village Eissen is located in the northern edge of the Börde. Above our village, towards Schönthal, we have soils interspersed with clay that are not as fertile as the pure, deep loess soils. There we also find sandstone banks of Keuper that are so hard that they were used for construction of houses and churches.

The formative power of the fire should not be forgotten as a further element in the design of the Börde. Fiery-liquid mass inside the earth crowded with tremendous pressure outwards. At several places they broke through the three layers of limestone, Keuper and loess and reached the surface. Here these masses from the earth solidified, which we call lava. You can now see it as basalt rock of the volcanic mountains Desenberg and Hüssenberg that arise amid the Börde.

The overall structure of the Warburg Börde is illustrated by a schematic cross-seciotn. The profiles of Desenberg and Hüssenberg rise evenly. Below are Keuper layers while previously employed by the basalt. Desenberg and Hüssenberg therefore carry a basalt cap.

A mixture of clay, sand and dolomite. Included in this are gypsum layers.
Hundreds of thousands of years ago, icebergs pushed boulders, earth and mud in front of them. These masses were removed by fierce northern winds and blown in the form of finest particles to the south. We call the layers that formed these particles in their deposition loess. Loess is very nutrient and fruitful, usually has a yellow-brown color and is as fine as flour.
This are rock deposits from the time when our country was covered by an inland sea. Hence this explains the many fossils we can find in the Muschelkalk like for example Crinoid stipes, Ammonoidea, snail shapes, fish-bones etc…